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Climate Change

¿Qué es el cambio climático?

Climate change is defined as a long-term change in Earth’s average weather patterns or overall climate, including Earth’s average temperature and precipitation. While changes in solar radiation, volcanic activity, Earth’s orbit and other natural drivers have influenced Earth’s climate throughout history, natural forces alone cannot explain the recent dramatic increases in global temperatures over the last century.

Most climate scientists agree human activities that release carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, including methane, nitrous oxide and human-made halocarbons, are the primary drivers of recent climate change, which is supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.

Climate change can lead to the increased frequency or strength of extreme weather and climate events or both.

Causas

Human-induced or anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are amplifying the “natural greenhouse effect”, as human activities have increased the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at an alarming rate, trapping extra greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and ultimately leading to unprecedented increases in global temperatures (i.e. the enhanced greenhouse effect).

The primary cause of increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases is the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas, for energy production. To a lesser extent, other human activities such as deforestation, land use changes, industrial processes, and improper waste management also contribute to the release of greenhouse gases.

Evidencia del Cambio Climático

The magnitude of annual extreme weather and climate events has been gradually increasing on a global scale since the 1980s.

Warmer climates are likely to result in extreme precipitation, heat waves, coastal flooding, and other extreme events that will intensify and become more frequent. Studies have demonstrated that generally climate change will continue to cause wet regions to get wetter and dry regions to get drier, but it is happening at a slower rate than previously expected.

Heat waves in particular can exacerbate the risk of droughts and followed by intense rainfalls, stressing water resources and increasing the frequency of wildfires. The intensity, frequency and duration of many hurricane systems have also increased, though it is not certain if this is entirely due to anthropogenic causes.

The enhanced greenhouse effect and associated climate change have resulted in increases in global average surface temperatures over land and oceans since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.

This rise in average global temperature has been, and will not be, uniform or smooth and will continue as long as humans continue to emit greenhouse gases.

Warmer temperatures have accelerated the melting of glaciers and ice sheets and consequently have increased global sea levels by 8 inches since 1880. Global sea level rise is also likely to increase storm surges, producing more destructive hurricanes and other severe storms. By 2100, climate change is expected to cause an additional sea level rise by 1 to 4 feet. Further, in the longer term, many coastal communities may become overwhelmed and may be compelled to invest in shoreline protection or relocate more inland.

The drastic increases in global temperatures have forced many plants and animals to migrate to higher elevations or away from the equator. Some animals, however, may have difficulty moving or adapting to new habitats, which may increase existing risks of extinction of more vulnerable species and accelerate the loss of biodiversity. Other natural systems at risk due to climate change include rivers and ice sheets, marine ecosystems, grasslands, and boreal and tropical forests.

Climate change can affect human health directly through heat-related illnesses and mortality and through mortality or injuries due to floods and storms, as well as indirectly through the increasing geographic ranges of vector-borne diseases (e.g. dengue fever and malaria), water-borne pathogens, water and air quality, and food availability and quality.

Rising temperatures also can increase smog levels, which can worsen air quality and cause adverse health issues for the young, elderly, or those with respiratory health conditions.

More importantly, climate change is expected to increase threats to human health particularly in lower income populations and within tropical and subtropical countries.

Plan de Acción - Canadá

To support the commitments under the Paris Agreement, Canada’s Prime Minister and eleven provincial and territorial premiers adopted the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change to take ambitious action to mitigate climate change, adapt and build resilience to the changing climate, and drive clean economic growth.

Además, los gobiernos federales, provinciales y territoriales se han comprometido a informar anualmente a los primeros ministros de Canadá y el público en general como una manera de hacer un balance de su progreso colectivo en la aplicación del marco y para mejorar la acción climática a través del tiempo. El primer informe anual publicado el 9 de diciembre de 2017, pone de relieve los logros federales, provinciales y territoriales clave en el último año y se estima que se lograron avances significativos en los cuatro pilares del Marco: contaminación de carbono de fijación de precios; acciones complementarias para reducir las emisiones; la adaptación y el clima resiliencia; y la tecnología limpia, innovación y empleo

Plan de Acción - Chile

The Ministry of the Environment is responsible for "proposing policies and formulating plans, programs and action plans on climate change", according to article 70.h. of the Environmental Bases Law 19,300.

Chile's commitment in its NDC is to decrease our greenhouse gases emissions, so that by 2030, the country's emissions will be between 30% and 45% less, expressed in GHG emissions per unit of GDP, with respect to 2007.

Para dar los primeros pasos hacia ese crecimiento verde, bajo en carbono y que fomente tecnologías limpias y renovables se elaboró el Plan de Acción Nacional de Cambio Climático 2017-2022. Es un instrumento de política pública que integra y orienta las acciones a tomar con respecto al cambio climático y que forma parte de los compromisos del Gobierno. Este plan está orientado a la implementación efectiva de medidas que se han identificado para adaptarse al cambio climático, para la reducción de la vulnerabilidad del país, contribuyendo, al mismo tiempo, al cumplimiento de los compromisos internacionales de Chile ante la Convención Marco de la Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático (CMNUCC). De esta manera, se continúa generando capacidades en materia de cambio climático a nivel del gobierno nacional, gobiernos subnacionales, sector privado, academia, organizaciones ciudadanas y en la comunidad en general.

El nuevo Plan (PANCC II) se desarrolló en un escenario de mayor conocimiento y de avances concretos obtenidos a través del PANCC 2008-2012 (PANCC I), así como también de mayor compromiso político tanto en el nivel nacional como internacional. Su elaboración se realizó con la colaboración de 13 ministerios y otros servicios con competencias en materia de cambio climático –bajo la coordinación de la División de Cambio Climático del Ministerio del Medio Ambiente– e inicio su etapa de diseño en 2014. El documento incluye las lecciones aprendidas de la ejecución del PANCC I y de la gestión del cambio climático en los últimos años, los avances a la fecha y los desafíos futuros que debe enfrentar el país, así como las iniciativas en desarrollo, aspectos institucionales, de financiamiento, sinergias y las visiones de los diferentes sectores al respecto.